The morphology of rice is divided into the vegetative phases (including germination, seedling, and tillering stages) and the reproductive phases (including panicle initiation and heading stages).

The rice grain, commonly called a seed, consists of the true fruit or brown rice (caryopsis) and the hull, which encloses the brown rice. Brown rice consists mainly of the embryo and endosperm. The surface contains several thin layers of differentiated Tissues that enclose the embryo and endosperm.The palea, lemmas, and rachilla constitute the hull of indica rices. In japonica rices, however the hull usually includes rudimentary glumes and perhaps a portion of the pedicel. A single grain weighs about 10-45 mg at 0% moisture content. Grain length, width, and thickness vary widely among varieties. Hull weight averages about 20% of total grain weight.

Germination and seedling development start when seed dormancy has been broken and the seed absorbs adequate water and is exposed to a temperature ranging from about 10 to 40° C. Under aerated conditions the seminal root is the first to emerge through the coleorhiza from the embryo, and this is followed by the coleoptile. Under

anaerobic conditions, however, the coleoptile is the first to emerge, with the roots developing when the coleoptile has reached the aerated regions of the environment. After the coleoptile emerges it splits and the primary leaf develops.

Tillering plants:
Each stem of rice is made up of a series of nodes and internodes. The internodes generally increase from the lower to upper part of the stem. Each upper node bears a leaf and a bud, which can grow into a tiller. The number of nodes varies from 13 to 16 with only the upper 4 or 5 separated by long internodes. The leaf blade is attached at the node by the leaf sheath, which encircles the stem. Where the leaf blade and the leaf sheath meet is a pair of clawlike appendages,

the auricle, which encircle the stem. Coarse hairs cover the surface of the auricle. Immediately above the auricle is a thin, upright membrane called the ligule. The tillering stage starts as soon as the seedling is self supporting and generally finishes at panicle initiation. Tillering usually begins with the emergence of the first tiller when seedlings have five leaves. This first tiller develops between the main stem and the second leaf from the base of the plant. Subsequently when the 6th leaf emerges the second tiller develops between the main stem and the 3d leaf from the base.

The tillers remain attached to the plant, at later stages they are independent because they produce their own roots. Varieties and races of rice differ in tillering ability. Numerous environmental factors also affect tillering including spacing, light, nutrient supply, and cultural practices.

The rice root system consists of two major types: crown roots (including mat roots) and nodal roots. In fact both these roots develop from nodes, but crown roots develop from nodes below the soil surface. Roots that develop from nodes above the soil surface usually are referred to as nodal roots. Nodal roots are often found in rice cultivars growing at water depths above 80 cm.

Panicle and spikelets:
The major structures of the panicle are the base, axis, primary and secondary branches, pedicel, rudimentary glumes, and the spikelets. The panicle axis extends from the panicle base to the apex; it has 8-10 nodes at 2- to 4-cm intervals from which primary branches develop. Secondary branches develop from the primary branches. Pedicels develop from the nodes of the primary and secondary branches; the spikelets are positioned above them. Since rice has only one fully developed floret (flower) per spikelet, these terms are often used interchangeably. The flower is enclosed in the lemma and palea, which may be either awned or awnless. The flower consists of the pistil and stamens, and the components of the pistil are the stigmas, styles, and ovary.

The growth duration of the rice plant is 3-6 months, depending on the variety and the environment under which it is grown. It is convenient to regard the life history of rice in terms of three growth phases: vegetative, reproductive, and ripening. Vegetative phase is characterized by active tillering, gradual increase in plant height, and leaf emergence at regular intervals. Reproductive phaseis characterized by culm elongation (which increases plant height), decline in tiller number, emergence of the flag leaf (the last leaf), booting, heading, and flowering of the spikelets. Ripening Phase follows fertilization, and may be subdivided into milky, dough, yellow-ripe, and maturity stages.

Rice Varities:
Zubair Enterprises
brings the Basmati Rice from the lush green and water filled fields of Punjab - best suited to grow pure and genuine Basmati.

The firm is engaged to export the following varieties of Rice:

Basmati Varieties:

  • Pakistan Super Basmati White Rice (Silky, Double Polished and Color Sortexed)
  • Pakistan Basmati 385 White Rice (Silky, Double Polished and Color Sortexed)
  • Pakistan Super Basmati Parboiled Rice

Non Basmati Varieties:

  • Pakistan Irri - 9 Rice (Punjab only 2000 M.Ton annually)

For the convenience of consumers, Zubair Enterprises has developed rice grain identifications as follows:

Super Basmati  
Average Grain Length 7.45 mm
Width 1.62 mm
Thickness 1.51 mm
Classification Extra Long Grain
Chalkyness No
Emylose Contents 24.2%
Gel Length 63 mm
Alkali Spread 4.7
Elongation 1.93

Super Basmati

Basmati PK386  
Variety Banned for Export  
Average Grain Length 6.78 mm
Width 1.78 mm
Thickness 1.56 mm
Classification Long Grain
Chalkyness No
Emylose Contents 25.2%
Gel Length 61 mm
Alkali Spread 5
Elongation 1.9

Basmati PK386
IRRI - 9  
Average Grain Length 6.93 mm
Width 1.69 mm
Thickness 1.46 mm
Classification Long Grain
Chalkyness Yes
Emylose Contents 28.8%
Gel Length 44 mm
Alkali Spread 7
Elongation 1.8

IRRI - 9


Basmati Rice:
Basmati means 'the perfumed one'. This name is given to long grained rice which has an aroma of its own. Due to its netlike flavor & specific fragrance, it is liked equally alike all over the world. Same is the reason for its highest cost. Basmati is ruling over almost 20% of the world market. Pakistani Basmati is at the top of the list of more than 120,000 varieties of rice. In cooking, it is capable of great elongation & may touch double the initial size. Not even a single grain breaks after cooking & thus adds much to its attraction & palatable sight.

Pakistan has the biggest & the largest canal irrigation system in the world. Punjab, the land of five rivers, is the leading rice producing province. The Basmati Rice cultivated over here is known to be the best quality all over the world.

Certain districts of Punjab have been approved as Basmati zone so that uniform quality control may be facilitated.

As far as the ecological requirements are concerned, rice is a semi-aquatic crop.

Hanes for the best growth, it requires paddy fields submerged under water in warm climate of Punjab.

Zubair Enterprises takes keen interest in choosing & distributing the prime quality of seed to the imminent growers, free of cost. Our experts remain in close contact with the farmers, observe cultivation & give very useful suggestions for quality control starting right from seedling to crop protection techniques. In this way, they are able to grow matchless Basmati Rice.

Paddy Selection:
Zubair Enterprises ensures the production of the finest quality of Basmati paddy to guarantee the best quality end product. For the purchase of best quality paddy, the Enterprises pays premium price to the farmers. Each & every employee at Zubair Enterprises tries his best to achieve the objectives of high quality. At the time of harvest, over team of paddy experts are present to take samples, perform tests & analyze the paddy.

Experienced selectors assess the quality of Basmati Paddy. Before the final purchase, once again the paddy grains are tested through reliable equipments.

Analytical tests are also conducted to determine moisture content, rice yield, broken percentage, field admixture etc. Zubair Enterprises is devoted & committed to complete all the above procedure without any fail.

The selected Basmati paddy is allowed to slowly reduce its moisture by natural-sun-drying-method, to achieve optimum moisture content for husking. Paddy is spread over large fields during the day and left for drying in the sun. This gradual drying helps to avoid thermal cracks in the rice Grain , which would result in broken grains at later stages, Paddy is brought in to Zubair Enterprises's sheller where brown Rice is produced after cleaning, de-husking and grading. In Brown rice, only the outer busk is removed, leaving the germ and bran layer, and retaining most of the nutritional value.

Bran is rich in minerals and vitamins. This minimal processing therefore, produces rice that is healthier to eat. For Zubair Enterprises, the key is to ensure that Basmati retains all that nature has given it. This brown rice is then used to produce the best quality white rice.


Zubair Enterprises has a firm believe in the latest technology & new agricultural methods in order to ensure the finest & uniform quality of the end product. The company owns a modern basmati rice processing plant. The plant possesses several new technological advancements made in the field of rice milling and processing the plant comprises state-of- the-art equipments with the colour master supplied by the SATAKE Corporation Japan. The plant has the latest and technologically developed machines for the processing of rice from whitening to colour sorting. The performance of these machines is admitted as the best in the world. The plant has a milling capacity of 6 tons / hr for the production of Super Basmati Rice. This capacity is increased if the other variety of rice is to process. The rice is fumigated before putting it these milling processes which can be divided in to following sections:


The first step in the Milling process is the cleaning of rice. This is a multi-sectional process where foreign material like straws, mud balls, threads, stones, paddy and metal particles are removed from the rice.

The perfect & high performance precleaners, paddy separators & de-stoners are used to obtain great Accuracyin feeding a purified rice to the later Processes. This process is applicable to both the white rice and brown rice.

Apart from the cleaning process itself, it is ensured that none of such impurities are added into rice during subsequent processes.


Keeping in view that the Rice grain is a fragile one; extra care in processing is taken. Any rough handling during processing can cause the grains to break or develop cracks. At ZUBAIR ENTERPRISES's plant rice is gently milled in whitening machines (SM 18, NF14 & Mist Polishers) in several passes to ensure efficient removal of bran. Number of passes depends upon the degree of whiteness required.

The mist polishers disclose an enormously clean and glossy whiteness to the kernels, a distinct advantage over traditional milling methods.

Zubair Enterprises process the rice grains for length as well as for thickness grading. In processing rice by this process, pure & full head rice is obtained with our any broken or shriveled rice. Due to powerful and highly advanced technologically built latest cylindrical & painshifters of three stages, uniform grains are achieved. The uniform grain length provide a nice emergence to the finished product.

Color Sorting:
The final step in rice processing is color sorting. This is aimed at to remove disclored grain from processed rice to give the final product a uniform-color look.

Due to latest machines SATAKE Color Master GS1200A/S, provide by the SATAKE Corporation, and Sortex9000MK2, provided by Sortex of London, Zubair Enterprises possesses the capacity to obtain the highly uniform colour grains.

Color sorting is an complicated computer-controlled process technology is used for performing high-resolution-optical inspection of each and every kernel. It removes the high concentration of predominantly chalky and discolored kernels to give final product a uniform appearance, these machines perform this sensitive processes with an extreme degree of Accuracy this can be judged from the fact that after this process there can be maximum only 4 discolored kernels in every 45000 good kernels, This degree of accuracy is not matched by any processors until this time.

Printing & Packaging:
Zubair Enterprises has its own printing unit to ensure the best quality printing of customer's brands on the packaging bags. for the purpose, Zubair Enterprises has expert colour product combination manager & staff espicially trained for this job. The printing capacity for high quality full colour cotton or jute bags of 40 to 45 kgs, packing is over 3000 bags per day.

A large range of packaging is available at Zubair Enterprises, which is as follows:-
Jute, Cotton, Polypropylene, Paper & Pet Jars.

Production Capacity:
Due to ever increasing the demands for its quality Rice day by day from International market, we have to increase the capacity of our production more that 80,000 metric Tons annually in both Basmati and Non Basmati varieties. The expansion was carried out by setting up yet another state of the art Rice Processing Plant. This latest addition of most modern and highly accurate and precise machinery has assured our valued clients that they can depend on us for the best in quality and consistency. Owing to quality supplies and on time delivery, the firm enjoys repeat orders from all of its valued clients which have resulted in an impressive increase in exports year after year. We export our quality rice in the European countries, USA, Canada, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Muscat and Iran etc.

Cooking of super basmati rice is dam easy. It does not require any special experience to be cooked. Any housemaid can cook it without taking much pain. It takes time next to nothing. It is cooked without any peeling, chopping & without any wastage.

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Ghalla Mandi, Jalalpur Bhattian, Distt. Hafiz Abad,
Punjab Pakistan. Email: info@zubairent.com
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